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鸿泰国际试玩注册送38【luory22.com.cn】为您提供集团最新官方网站,更高级的VIP服务体验,更多的优惠活动,更快速的存取款时间,专属美女客服一对一服务,赶快注册游戏吧。台山砂谙顾问有限公司(原改则址重潮传媒)成立于1993年,占地面积91319平方米,热博国际app苹果下载其中生产厂房占地2870平方米,仓库面积占地9869平方米。固定资产2087万元,流动资产1244万元,干部职工共354人,工程技术人员61人。鸿泰国际试玩注册送38YuBinZhangLiqunSincethebeginningofthisyear,theChineseeconomyhasmaintai,thegrowthofconsumerdemandhasbeensteady,thestructureofsupplyhasimproved,andth,thefollowingissuesconcerningeconomicoperationshouldreceivespecia’,theworldeconomicgrowthhasvisiblysloweddownd,makingtheec,,theimpactofclearlyincreaseduncertaintiesonChina’neweconomybubble,ersandinvestorsandboostedtherisk-avertingconsciousnessofthepeople,,itisstilldifficulttodeterminet,,invethrecovery,’,,thebadassetsoffinancial,’,msandtheirfoundationforrecoverywasnotsolid,’,,thew,,exportgrewonlyby7percentoverthesameperiodayearago,,,theproblemofglobaloverproduction,ernationalmarket,importandotherchannelsafterChina’,thesaggingworldeconomy,thesluggishstockmarketsandtheincreasedfinancialriskswilladversely,thewaragainstterrorismcouldaggravateregionalconflicts,increasetheuncertaintiesintheworldpoliticalandeconomicorder,andimpairChina’,weshouldalsoseethatthechangesintheinternationaleconomicenvironmenthavecreatedfavorableopportunitiesforChinatoattracttechno,overproductionandfiercercompetitionhavereducedthecostofChina’’sexcellentmomentumofeconomicdevelopmentanditsenormousmarketpotent,henergeticforeignenterprisesandimportingtechnologiesandequipmentforkeyareasandlinkswillbeofvitalimportancetoenhancingtheinternationalcompetitivenessoftheChineseindustries,narrowingtheirtechnologicalgapwithforeigncounterparts,meetingthech,therefore,Chinashouldworkoutstrategicplansfortheimport,thedigestionofmajortechnologiesandequipment,theestablishmentofjointventuresandthecooperationbytakingfulladvantageofthefavorableopportun,itshouldexpandim,whilethecontributiontoeconomicgrowthbyforeigndemandhasvisiblyweakened,theexpansi,thetotalamountoffixedassetinvestmentand,,,China’seconomicdeve,therearebothfacto,thefoundationisstillnotsolidforacontinuedexpansionofdomesticdemand....Ifyouneedthefullcontext,pleaseleaveamessageonthewebsite.ZhangWenkuiResearchReportNo97,’s,tosolvetheproblemsofheavydebtofChina’sstate-ownedenterprises(SOEs)andtheresultanthugeamountsofnon-performingassetsofnationalbanks,someprogramswereputforwardforrestructuringthedebtsofbanksandenterprises,includingthedebt-to-equityswapprogramwithgreatinfluence(byZhouXiaochuanetal.,1994).Afterafewyearsofdeliberation,thedebt-to-equityswapprogramwasacceptedbythed,aninvestmentdepartmentwastobesetupineachcommercialbank,whatisactuallyadoptedist(AMCs)receivere-loansfromthecentralbankandpurchasethecreditor’srightstoenterprisesatfacevaluefromrespectivecommercialbanks,andtransferthemintoequityofenterprises,finally,alltheAMCsshallexi,thatistosay,theyshouldwithin10yearsaccomplishthe,thedebt-,therelevantdepartmentsrecommended601enterprisesforcarryingoutdebt-to-equityswaps,,themajorityoftherecommendedenterpriseshadconclu,thegeneralenterprisesurveyteamoftheStateStatisticsBureauconductedanoverallsurveyof504enterprisesthathadsignedofficialandframeworkagreementswithAMCs,itshowsthatinthefirstyear(2000)ofdebt-to-equityswaps,theenterprisesinvolvedintheswapwouldligh,aftercompletingthedebt-to-equityswap,,,enterprisesexpectedtogainprofitin2000amountedto439,,ofwhich,ownbyastilllargermargininsomelocalities,takeBeijingforanexample,in2000therewere17SOEsthatconcludedadebt-to-equityswapagreementwithAMCs,andaftercompletionofdebt-to-equityswap,,andlikewise,mosto,thedebtislibereachedin10yearsandthatthedebt-to-equityswappolicyisadvancingtowardstheexpectedgoalAsamatteroffact,theimmediateemergenceofprofitwasbasicallynotbroughtaboutbythedeep-rootedchangeintheenterprises,instead,themajorpartofprofitwasattributedtothechangeintheirfinancialstructure,inotherwords,lessdebtandinterestpaymenthasmadetheirbookslook"better"toanyfundamentalchangeintheirsituation,whatismoreimportantthanthefinancialstructureisthechangeinthestructuresofoperation,propertyrightsandgovernance(ZhangWenkui,1999).Inordertodeterminewhethertheimplementationofthedebt-to-equityswappolicyisconducivetoreachingtheexpectedgoal,wecannotbutemofenterprisesisworthyofourattention,becauseitnotonlyinvolveswhethertherestructuredenterprisesareabletofulfilltheirdebtobligationinthefuture,butalsohasabearingonwhethertheywillestablishasoundmechanisminafartherfutureunderwhichalltherespoisofvitalimportancetothesuccessofdebtrestructuringwhileanuncturedenterprisesinHungaryandPoland,itwasnotdtheinternalsituationoftheindebtedenterprise,thecreditorswereusuallyputintothepositionoffigureheads,therefore,notmuchimprovementwasmadeinthebusinessperformanceofmostdebt-restructuredenterprises(ZhangChunlin,1999).China’sdebt-to-equityswappolic,andtheinterestandbehavior-orientationofthenewshareholderwillexertanimpactonthegovernancestructureoftheenterprise,andthisisve:InternationalPerspectiveandTheoreticalProbeModerncapitalstructuretheoriesbelievethatequitycapitalanddebtcapitalplaydifferentrolesinenterprises,andanappropriatecapitalstructureisbeneficialtobot,however,thecapitalstructuredeviatesfromthereasonablelimitwithtoohighadebtratio,,debtrestructuringisusuallymoreacceptabletoallthepartiesconcernedthanliquidationafterbankruptcy....Ifyouneedthefullcontext,pleaseleaveamessageonthewebsite.。

    RenXingzhouTheSino-USbilateralagreementonChina’sentryintoWTOconcernsthecommoditydistributionserviceinthesectorof“distributionservice”undertheitemof“servicetrade”.Itmainlyincludesfourparts:commissionbusiness,wholesales,,,theopeningofdistributionservicemarketandtheentryofforeignlargecommercialbusinesseswillexertmajorimpactoverChina’heWTOagreement,wecanfindthatdistributionservic(mainlycirculationofconsumergoods),butalsoinvolvethecirculationofproductionmaterialsandindustrialproducts,aswellasdistributionservices’sactualsituation,theopeningofdistributionservicewillexertimpactonthefollowingaspects:hina’,wecanfindthatthecurrentopeningofretailmarkethasgonebeyoinprinciple,theStateCouncilandlocalgovernmentshaveapprovednearly300jointventur’,trialexperimentshaveext,companiestorealizesalesinothercities,andtheopeninglbusine,thecompetit’sentryintoWTO,’sretailmarket,,foreignfirmswillnotdealafatalblowtoChina’,fromanactivepointofview,theforeignretailbusinesseswillbringintoChinanotonlythefundsthatChina’seconomicdevelopmentneeds,butalsoadvancedoperationideas,technologiesandmarketingmethods,,theChinashouldgivecommercialcapitalisthemostactivecapital;theretailsectorhasalowthresholdfornewinvestors;theproportionoffixedcapitalislow;thereturnrateoninvestmentishigh,,foreignlargecommercialbusinesseshavesharpercompetitionedge,theywillexerthighpressur,,somecountriesthathavejocommoditywholesalebusinessSincethemarketofdaily-useindustrialproductswasopenedinmid-1980s,thestate-ownedcommoditywholesaleenterpriseshavebeeninadifficulttime,,,withmodernwholesaletechnology,managementandcapitaladvantage,,withtheadvanceofmodernITtechnology,improvementoftransportationandprogressinmaterialflowtechnology,thewholesaleenterprises’marketingareah,accordingtothebilateralagreement,Chinawillgraduallyallowforeign-investedmanufa,thesesale,theywillusetheirownmarketingchannelstoturnthewholedistributionprocess,fromtheproducerstoconsumers,erpriseswhichhavelongbeencharacterizedbyaseparationofproductionfrommarketing,,,especiallyafterforeignlargechainstoreenterprisesenterChina’,retailandproductionfirmstohavealargerroomformarketexpansion,thusposinganothermajorchallengetoChina’,theentryofforeignwholesaleandretailenterpriseswillalsobringaboutnewopportunitiestoChina’,foreignfirmswilldefinitelyincreasethepurchaseofdomesticallymadeproductsandmotivatetheexportof,foreignwholesaleenterpriseswillalsobringinmodernwholesalemanagement,distributionandmaterialsflowoperationtechnology,whichwillhelpChina’swholesaleindustryreducecost,,however,thatafterChina’sentryintoWTO,foreign-investedwholesaleenterpriseswithobviouscompetitiveness,modernwholesalemanagementtechnologyandthestrengthtobuildwholesaleandcommoditydeliveryc,Chinaofferedspecificpledgeconcerningthedistribution(whichvarieswithdifferentproducts).Theindustriesandproductstobemoreaffectedare:pharmaceuticals(wholesaleandretailofmedicines),petrochemicals(petroleum,pesticidesandchemicalfertilizers),andmachine-buildingindustry(mainlyautomobile)....Ifyouneedthefullcontext,pleaseleaveamessageonthewebsite.:aMajorImpedimenttoIndustrializationofHighTechnologyExperiencesofforeigncountrieshaveprovedthat,intechnologicaldevelopmentsystem,transsthescientificresearchachievementsmadebyscientificresearchinstitutes,universi,theratiooftransformationofresearchachievementshasforyearsbeenaroundalowlevelof5%,ades,wepacedalongtheoldpathtotransferscientificre,thefundsprovidedbythegovernmentwerefarfromsufficienttosupportthetransformationofresearchachievements,so,somewithmarketpotentialhadtobes,duetothelackofrealinvestmentbodiesandmechanismsoflimitingcost,andencouragingbettereconomicreturnsfrominvestmentinparticular,theeffectofthefundsusedforthetransformationofresearchachievementswasverylow,therefore,itcouldhardlyposeavirtuouscyc,therealityisthatscientificresearchandhi-techindustryareseparatedasiftheybelongedtodifferentsectors:Scientificresearchersdonotcareforcommercialbenefitsfortheirach,meanwhile,hasnowaytoarousetheenthusiasmofresearchersinupgradingproductsandprtegrationofthetwosegments,,thegovernmentmadetremendouseffortstoencouragebanksreditco-opsinvariousareasacrossthecountry,thegovernmentsparednoeffortstoadjusti,however,nologicalenterprisesdidnotoperateasoriginallyrequired,butturnedintonon-bank,commercialbanksbecamenotso"obedient"asbeforewhentheirreformtowar’sBankofChinain1998showedthattheenterpriseslocatedinthehi-techdevelopmentzonesinBeijing,Tianjin,Jilinandotherprovincesandmunicipalitieswereuniversallyhauntedbyshortageoffunds,,forinstance,plannedanincreaseofRMB100millionasspecialloansearmarkedforscientificandtechnologicaldevelopmentin1997,gNewTechnologyIndustrialDevelopmentandTestZonehasalsorevealedthatonly7%oftheenterpriseslocatecingmethod,plansandadministrativemeasures,commercialbanks,obligedbytheirpromisesofrepayingtheprincipalsandintereststodepositors,havetooperateinasteadfastwayathecharacteristicsofhigh-techenterprisesthatareunstable,lackingguaranteeassets,,therefore,banksappeartobeveryprudentintheirselectionoftargetproj,’sBankofChina,theshort-termloanswithinoneyearaccountedformorethan95%entralgovernmentestablishedtheprincipleofactivelypromotingdevelopmentofhi-techindustry,therehasbeenacommonunderstandinginrecentyearsthatthecapitalmarkattheShanghaian,thestatusquoofChina’scapitaoneisatypicalexample:a)Ofthe2,343joint-stockenterpriseslocatedinBeijing’sZhongguancunarea,onlythreeraisedfundstotalingRMB860millionfromthestockexchangebyissuingA-sharesin1998.(StudyReportofBeijingNewTechnologyIndustrialDevelopmentandTestZone,1999)b)Therehasbeennoexamplesoforthatanyscientificandtechnicale)ThepropertyrightsmarketinBeijinghasbeenkeptbypainstakingeffortssinceitsestablishment,,)TheBeijingMunicipalGovernmentpooledRMB500millionin1998ands.Withotherfundsearmarkedforventureinvestment,thet,,whilethedeep-rootedcauseliesintheincompletenessofmarketandrisksassessmentsystemsandinsomepr)Atpresent,therearethreeguaranteefundsinBeijingforsmallandmedium-sizedhigh-techenterprises,setupbythemunicipalgovernment,formalitiesforobtainingguaranteesaretoocomplicatedanddifficult,whe,however,thatmorethanhalfofhi-techenterprisesagreeth%ofenterpriseshavetakeortinghi-techenterprises,themajorproblemslyinginChina’scapitalmarketaremanifestedinthefollowingfouraspects:a)’scurrentmarketwithaunitarylayercanneithermeetthefinancingdemandofalargenumberofsmallandmedium-sizedhigh-techenterprises,,Chinascapitalmarkethasdevelopedtowardshighcentralizationandsimplifiedtobetwostockexchanges,imited,itisinevitabletoexcludecertainmar,namely,thestockexchange,thismarketisboundtofavorbige’traisesufficientfundsfromthecapitalmarket,wlayeroftrading,itscapacitywouldbelimiteddueto,aphenomenonatChinasstockexchanges,,invederaconsiderableamountofsocialfundsfromenteringintothecapitalmarket,thusleavingthemidle....Ifyouneedthefullcontext,pleaseleaveamessageonthewebsite.10-200米MiJianguo,’sBankingIndustryAsanimportantpartofitsopening-uppolicy,,foreignbankshavedevelopedrapidlyinChina,approximatelyexperiencingthreestages:Firststage,since1979,,Chinaapprovedtheopeningofthefirstrepresentativeofficeoftheforeign-investedbank,,31foreig’,since1981,Chinaapprovedt,foreignbankswereapprovedtosetuptrialoperativeinstitutionsinfivespecialeconomiczones,includingShenzhen,,Nanya,Shanghaibecamethecoastalopeningcitythatintroducedfo,theregionsallowedtointrod,,23citiesandHa,in1983and1985,tworegulations–"ManagementMeasuresofthePeople’sBankofChinaforRepresentativeOfficesofOverseas-investedandForeign-investedFinancialInstitutionsinChina"andthe"RegulationsofthePeople’sRepublicofChinafortheManagementofForeignBanksandSino-foreignJointVentureBanksinSpecialEconomicZones"–wereissuedrespectivelytoputtheint,the"RegulationsofthePeople’sRepublicofChinafortheManagementofForeign-investedFinancialInstitutions"wasissued,,since1996,,selectedforeignbankswereallowedtohandleRenminbibusinessinShanghai’:Renminbidepositandcredit,settlement,guarantee,,thecentralbankapprovedeightforeignbankshandlingRenminbibusinessinPudong,,theStateannouncedthatallthecentral,theforeignbanks’businessscopeinShanghaiandShenzhenwereexpanded,theywereallowedtodob,thecentralbankalsoadoptedaseri,whenforeign-banksareshortoffunds,thecentralba,theforeignbanksareallowedtoissuesignificant-amoun,theforeignbanksareallowedtojoinintheissuingofrenminbisyndicatedloans,,theforei,therateoftotalRenminbidebttoitstotalforeignexchangecanberelaxedfrom50%to35%.In1997,aftertheAsianfinancialcrisisbrokeout,especiallyduetotheshockofeventof"Guangxin",,foreignbanks’,,’assetsinChina(1991-2000)。

    悦博BBIN捕鱼达人––Reportonthe2000surveyofgrowthanddevelopmentofentrepreneursinChinaInthe1999questionnairesurveyofenterprisemanagersinChinaconductedbytheChineseEntrepreneursSurveySystem,whichisaffiliatedtotheInformationCenteroftheDevelopmentResearchCenteroftheStateCouncil,10,,3,,autonomousregionsandmunicipalitiesexceptHongKong,,andtheproportionsofbig,,,generalmanagers,factorydirectors,,thequestionnairesurveytriedtocastlightontheprogressandproblemsofsystemconstructionoftheranksofentrepreneursinChinamainlyfromthefollowingangles:basicqualityandoccupationaltendenciesofenterprisemanagers,thedecision-makingmechanismsofenterprises,themechanismsfortheselectionofenterprisemanagers,ndopeningtotheoutsideworld,theoverallqualityofChineseenterprisemanagershasconstantlyimproved,andstructuralchangeshavetakenplaceintheirlevelofknowledge,erprisemanagers,whichischaracterizedbyahigherdegreeofformalschoolingsofarastheknowledgestructureofenterprisemanagersisconcerned,dominancebymiddle-agedandyoungpeoplesofarastheirageisconcerned,andintegrationoftechnicalandmanagementexpertisewiththelatter,Chinahavebeenimprovedsomewhat,thedecision-makingrolesoftheboardsofdirectorshavebeenstrengthenedtoacertaindegree,themechanismfortheselectionofenterprisemanagersandsystemsfortheexaminationoftheirachievementsmeetingtherequirementsofmodernenterprisesystemshavebeengraduallyimproved,andsohavebcteristicsofamarketeconomyarebeingexploredanddeveloped,theincomelevelsofenterprisemanagershaveconstantlyrisen,,state-ownedenterpriseshavefallenbehindincomparisonsof;marketization,specializationandsystematizationoftheranksofentrepreneurswillbeacceleratedvigorously;andsystemsfitforasocialistmarketeconomyandmodernenterprisesystemswillbeinstalledorperfectedtocreateafavorablesociaultsofthesurveyshowthatperabovethecollegelevel,on,andmostofthemhaveset“workfortheinterestsofemployees”and“realizationofself-value”“willyoustillchoosetobeanenterprisemanagerifyouaregivenanotherchancetochooseyouroccupation”,“yes”“no”.Themanagersofprivatelyownedenterpriseshaveacomparativelyhigherdegreeofs“whatistheforcebehindenterprisemanagerswhostillworkhardwhentheirenterprisesfallintodifficulties”,mostoftherespondentstickedtheanswers“workfortheinterestsofemployees”and“realizationofself-value”astheirfirstchoices,“self-temperingandself-improvementindifficulties”and“makingcontributiontosociety”,thatinshareholdingenterprises,thedecision-makingrolesoftheirboardsofdirectorshavebeenstrengthenedsomewhat,theproportionofadministrativeleadersholdingconcurrentpostsofPartysecretarieshasbecomebiggerthantheyearbefore,andthecontinuityoftenureofNo1leadersisremarkablylessi,chairpersons,,,twothirdsofthechairpersonsareconcurrentlythegeneralmanagers,almost,es,veyshowthatintherecent10years,thefrequencyofreplacementoftheNo1leadersofenterprisesisbiggestinstate-ownedenterprises,,,,enterprisesinvolvingforeignorHongKong,,,eyshowthatsincethelaunchingofthepolicyofreformandopeningtotheoutsideworld,comparativelybigchangeshavetaktsarestillthemajorformofselectionofenterprisemanagers,thisproportionhasshrunkandthepropogersisconcerned,“workachievements”and“managementability”havebeenregardedasthemostimportantqualificationsfortheselectionofenterprisemanagers,“moralityandprestige”,;and“trustworthinessbysenioradministrativedepartments”and“professionalknowledge”,(SeeTable1).Table1Qualificationsfortheselectionandappointmentofmanagersforenterprisesofdifferenttypesofownership(%)GeYanfeng,DongKeyong,YangYansui,DingNingningResearchReport,,2000(Total1294),,:whatkindofasystemshouldbeestablished,andcanitbeestablishedgiventhepresentconditionsofChinaThisseriousproblemhasbeendiscussedformanyyearsbuttherehasn’,itisnecessarytoconductdiscussionsontherelevantissues.(I)MajorPointsofViewonthisIssueTherearevariousopinionsinacademiccirclesonwhatkindofmodetobechosenforChina,,acompletepay-as-you-go(PAYG)ge;thatitcaolvesnoincentiveandmayincurconsiderablefinancialcrisiswhenthenation’spopulationismtoindividuals;thatthepracticeofdecidingpaymentaccordingtoincomecanavoidtheriskofhavingtopayunbearablyhighpensionswhenthepopulationgetsaged;andthatalargesumofcompulsorylong-termsavingsthusaccumulatedwillprovideastrongfinancialsupportforthenation,susce"partialaccumulation".Thisconcepthasbeenverypopulheminimumpensionsecurityandfacilitatetheneedformutualcomplement;thesecondpartshallbe"multi-pillarmode"."partialaccumulation"isthatinthenearterm,,tocollectasmuchaspossiblemoneysoastomakeupforthedeficitthatwillturnupduringthepeakperiodofacountbutdefinethefunctionofpersonalaccountas"nominalaccount",whichservesoto’ta"unified"pt,organizationalframeandmanagementmethod,,nearlyeverycountryisconstantlyreformingitspensionsecuritysysandareindifferentstagesofeconomicdevelopment,thereis,onthetargetmode,weshouldfullyconsiderChina’sconditionsands(II)FactorstobeSeriouslyConsideredWhenChoosingtheBasicTargetModeThepensionsecuritysystemistheessentialpartofthesocialsecuritysystemaswellasoneofnationalb,,Chinaisadevelopingcountrywithalargepopulationandalowlevelofeconomicdevelopment;thereisanapparentgapbetweencitiesandcountryside;,pensionsecuritysystemorganizedbytheChinesegovernmentcanbenomorethananelementarysecuritysystemwithlowstandard,promotingtheeconomicgrowthandraisingtheeconomicefficiencyaretheprimetaskforChinaini,socialstabilizerisnottheonlyfunctionofpensionsecuritysystem,whichshouldalsoprovideincentivesinfavourofeconomicgrowth,includingencouragingcitizenstow,becauseoftherapidgrowthofpopulationduringthe1950sand1960sandthestrictimplementationofthefamilyplanningpolicysincethebeginningofthe1970s,,ourpensionsecuritysystemmustbesustainabletothepressurebroughtalongbytheagingofpopulationduringthepe,China,asChinaisinthestageofrapidindustrializationandurbanization,,,thenewp,asChinaisprogressingtowardsanewsystemofsocialistmarketeconomy,attentionshouldbegiventoseparatingther,theeconomicrestructuringwiththedevelopmentofvariousformsofeconomicownershipandheavyburdensofstate-ownedenterprisesandfve-mentionedsixissuesintheefforttochoosethetargetmodeduringthereformofthepensionsecuritysystem.(III)SuggestedModeofPensionSecuritySystemandItsInstitutionalFrameGiventheaforementionedconditionsofChina,eveniftheissuessuchasincentiveareignored,thepressureofpopulationagingalonewouldmakeit’twork,thepracticeof"operatingonblankaccount",whichisnotsubstantiallydifferentfromthepracticeofpay-as-you-gosystemintermsofthewayoffundoperation,wonspensionsecuritysysteminrecentyearshasjustifiedthisunderstanding.…Ifyouneedthefulltext,pleaseleaveamessageonthewebsite.ChengXiushengResearchReportNo238,2000Intheearlydaysofitsdriveofreformandopening-up,Chinagrantedpreferentialpolicytreatmentandsupporttotheprivatesectorforthepurposeofchangingthesituationofunitaryownership,andthereforeprelimi,thenon-Statesectorshiphasforerunthestatesect,thenon-publicsectorhasgrowntoaconsiderablesize,resultinginasituationofco-developmentoftheState,,theprivatesectorh,China’sprivateengofthestateeconomy(characterizedbytheadvancementofsomeoftheseenterprisesandwithdrawalofsomeothers)callfortheprivana’sentryintoWTO,thecountry’’snationaleconomy,thefulfillmentofitsthird-stepstrategicgoalofeconomicdevelopment,anditsattainmentofthelevelofmoderatelydevelopedcountriesinthemiddleofthenextcentury,theprivatesec,itisnecessarytokeepproper’sprivateeconomyhasalwaysmaintaineditstrendofrapidgrowthsinceChina’,thenumberofregi,thenumberoftheem,,and’snationaleconomyatthefastestspeed,theprivatesectorhasplayedaremarkableroleinspurringtherapidgrowthoftheChina’seconomyandgainedthefollowingbasiccharacteristics:----DeparturefromthephaseofprimitiveaccumulationandgrowthtoafairlyconsiderableeconomicsizeasawholeAsgenerallyreferredtoineconomicdocuments,theprivateeconomicsectorcoversmainlyprivateenterprises,theeconomicsectorofindividualownership,andcompaniesdevelopedfromprivateenterprisesinausualsense,mmerce,,thetotalregisteredcapitaloftheseenterprisesreachedRMB1,,,individually-runind,,,employmentofworkersandgenerationoftotaloutput,theprivatesectorhasnowgainedaroughly10-20percentshareofChina’snationaleconomyandbecomeanimprofnon-Stateownership,theprivateeconomicsectorhasnowtakenupashareofmorethan60percentofandgainedadominantpositioninChina’snationaleconomyintermsofquantity.----Animportantroleininvestment,employment,taxpayment,foreignexchangeearning,andscientificandtechnicaldevelopmentInvestmentbytheprivateeconomicsectornowaccountsforabout15-20percentandthatbynon-Stateeconomicsectorincludingtheeconomicsectorofcollectiv,thesectorasawholeearnedUS$,whileprivately-runindustrincehasnowbecomeanimportantfactorwithadirectbearingonthehealthyperformanceofChina’,theyhaveundergonethreephasesofdevelopmentinChina--thephaseofbudding,thephaseofaccelerateddevelopmentandthephaseofmaturity,,thenumberofprivately-runscientificandtechnicalenterpriseshasnowgrownto200,,theseenterprisesearnedRMB1,000billioninrevenuefromtechnicalandindustrialprojectsandtrade,,andUS$----Withenlargedaveragesizeofcapitalandenhancedstrength,anumberofprivateenterprisesaredevelopingtowardsascaleeconomyBytheendof1999,theaverageregisteredcapitaloftheprivateenterprisesinChinareachedoverRMB680,000,morethanfivetimestheamountofRMB98,1millionhit200,000,about73,millionwas17,000(figuresended1998),andthosewhoseregisteredcapitalsurpassedRMB10millionnumbered9,,,,’sprivateenterpriseshasgrowncons鸿泰国际试玩注册送38重合同守信誉企业市级明星企业,:aMajorImpedimenttoIndustrializationofHighTechnologyExperiencesofforeigncountrieshaveprovedthat,intechnologicaldevelopmentsystem,transsthescientificresearchachievementsmadebyscientificresearchinstitutes,universi,theratiooftransformationofresearchachievementshasforyearsbeenaroundalowlevelof5%,ades,wepacedalongtheoldpathtotransferscientificre,thefundsprovidedbythegovernmentwerefarfromsufficienttosupportthetransformationofresearchachievements,so,somewithmarketpotentialhadtobes,duetothelackofrealinvestmentbodiesandmechanismsoflimitingcost,andencouragingbettereconomicreturnsfrominvestmentinparticular,theeffectofthefundsusedforthetransformationofresearchachievementswasverylow,therefore,itcouldhardlyposeavirtuouscyc,therealityisthatscientificresearchandhi-techindustryareseparatedasiftheybelongedtodifferentsectors:Scientificresearchersdonotcareforcommercialbenefitsfortheirach,meanwhile,hasnowaytoarousetheenthusiasmofresearchersinupgradingproductsandprtegrationofthetwosegments,,thegovernmentmadetremendouseffortstoencouragebanksreditco-opsinvariousareasacrossthecountry,thegovernmentsparednoeffortstoadjusti,however,nologicalenterprisesdidnotoperateasoriginallyrequired,butturnedintonon-bank,commercialbanksbecamenotso"obedient"asbeforewhentheirreformtowar’sBankofChinain1998showedthattheenterpriseslocatedinthehi-techdevelopmentzonesinBeijing,Tianjin,Jilinandotherprovincesandmunicipalitieswereuniversallyhauntedbyshortageoffunds,,forinstance,plannedanincreaseofRMB100millionasspecialloansearmarkedforscientificandtechnologicaldevelopmentin1997,gNewTechnologyIndustrialDevelopmentandTestZonehasalsorevealedthatonly7%oftheenterpriseslocatecingmethod,plansandadministrativemeasures,commercialbanks,obligedbytheirpromisesofrepayingtheprincipalsandintereststodepositors,havetooperateinasteadfastwayathecharacteristicsofhigh-techenterprisesthatareunstable,lackingguaranteeassets,,therefore,banksappeartobeveryprudentintheirselectionoftargetproj,’sBankofChina,theshort-termloanswithinoneyearaccountedformorethan95%entralgovernmentestablishedtheprincipleofactivelypromotingdevelopmentofhi-techindustry,therehasbeenacommonunderstandinginrecentyearsthatthecapitalmarkattheShanghaian,thestatusquoofChina’scapitaoneisatypicalexample:a)Ofthe2,343joint-stockenterpriseslocatedinBeijing’sZhongguancunarea,onlythreeraisedfundstotalingRMB860millionfromthestockexchangebyissuingA-sharesin1998.(StudyReportofBeijingNewTechnologyIndustrialDevelopmentandTestZone,1999)b)Therehasbeennoexamplesoforthatanyscientificandtechnicale)ThepropertyrightsmarketinBeijinghasbeenkeptbypainstakingeffortssinceitsestablishment,,)TheBeijingMunicipalGovernmentpooledRMB500millionin1998ands.Withotherfundsearmarkedforventureinvestment,thet,,whilethedeep-rootedcauseliesintheincompletenessofmarketandrisksassessmentsystemsandinsomepr)Atpresent,therearethreeguaranteefundsinBeijingforsmallandmedium-sizedhigh-techenterprises,setupbythemunicipalgovernment,formalitiesforobtainingguaranteesaretoocomplicatedanddifficult,whe,however,thatmorethanhalfofhi-techenterprisesagreeth%ofenterpriseshavetakeortinghi-techenterprises,themajorproblemslyinginChina’scapitalmarketaremanifestedinthefollowingfouraspects:a)’scurrentmarketwithaunitarylayercanneithermeetthefinancingdemandofalargenumberofsmallandmedium-sizedhigh-techenterprises,,Chinascapitalmarkethasdevelopedtowardshighcentralizationandsimplifiedtobetwostockexchanges,imited,itisinevitabletoexcludecertainmar,namely,thestockexchange,thismarketisboundtofavorbige’traisesufficientfundsfromthecapitalmarket,wlayeroftrading,itscapacitywouldbelimiteddueto,aphenomenonatChinasstockexchanges,,invederaconsiderableamountofsocialfundsfromenteringintothecapitalmarket,thusleavingthemidle....Ifyouneedthefullcontext,pleaseleaveamessageonthewebsite.ChenHuaiResearchReportNo133,2001Atpresent,suggestedmeansforthereductionofstatesharesmainlyincludesale,,however,thisproblemcannotbesolvedcomp(SICs)playthe"majorrole",largeinvestmentcompaniesreferto,toputitbluntly,istofoster"aprimary-and-halfmarket".SICsfirstacquirethestatesharessoreducedandthen,inacertainform,loselyintegratetheshort-termgoalsofsupplementing"sell"partofstate-ownedassets,itisaimedatsolvingfourma,howtoturnstate-ownedassetsintofundstosupplementthesocialsecurityfund;secondly,howtopromotethemulti-polarizedreformoftheequitystructureofthelargeandmedium-sizedstateenterprisesandtoestablishastandardandregulatorycorporategovernancesystem;thirdly,howtoenhancetheoverallcontrollingcapabilityofthestate-ownedeconomy;andlastly,howtoregulatethesecuritiesmarketandputanendtotheab,intheformof"cashing",ofrealizingaredistributionofthepropertyrightsofthestate-ownedassets,aprocessofboostingthemulti-polarizedtransformationoftheequityofstate-ownedenterprisesandadvancingformationofacorporatemanagementsystem,,afteracquisitionofshares,donotsimplyholdsuchsharesandsellthematahighpriceattherighttime,theywillalsoactasrepresent,thebasicpatternoftheequitysystemofthestate-ownedassetsinChinastandslikethis:"TheStateCouncilexercisestherighttostate-ownedassetsonbehalfofthestateinaunifiedmanner;thecentralandlocalgovernmentsadministerthestate-ownedassets;thelargeenterprises,enterprisegroupsandholdingcompaniesareauthorizedtooperatethestate-ownedassets".Withinthisframework,ryshareholderandtheydominatetheentireindustryorsector,enterprisesareactuallystillunderthecontroloflocalgovernmentsorcompetentdepartments,therefore,itisverydiff,theboardofdirectorsofanenterprisecannotprotectther,itisnecessarytofindsomekiocalbenefitsandtheformerstateshareholdersseparatelyholdthestateequities,isitpossibletorealizepluralisticequitiesoftheseentertransformthestructureofequitiesover-concentratedonaunita15thCentralCommitteeofChina’sCommunistParty,thebasicfunctionsofSICsshouldshiftfromthefocusofin,theequityofstate-ownedassetsshallbelikewisetransferredfromtheholdingcompaniesaimedatproduct,SICsshallbethemainholdersandoperatorsofthestate-ownedassetsand,inasense,reprete-ownedshares:Firstly,rvaluedeductionofthepledgedstock,andthentheycanacquirethereducedstatesharesconstantlyinarollingwayofpurchase,pledgeforloanandfurtherpurchase;secondly,thestate,inthecapacityofinvestor,providesagivenamountoffundsincashorinkindtoSICsasseedcapital,theincreaseofstateinvestmentmaytaketheformofeithercashordirectallocation;andlastly,anumberofinvestmentfundsaresetupandmanagedbySICs,whichareexclusivelyusedforreductionofthestateshares....Ifyouneedthefullcontext,pleaseleaveamessageonthewebsite.GeYanfeng,WangXuTianKaiResearchReportNo140,2002Overall,China’saccessiontotheWorldTradeOrganizationisnotonlyconducivetothelong-termdevelopm,however,WTOaccessionmeansfiercercompetitionandfurthermajorstructuraladjustmentofChina’,someoftheexistingsocialcontradictionsandproblemsmayaggravanoverallsenseisbeingmadeineconomicandsocialdevelopment,theinterestsofs,a"Non-ParetoImprovement",especiallythoseofvulnerablegroups,shouldbecomeabasicstartingpointoftheChinesegovernment’ansitionandespeciallytheissuesconcerningtheemployment,incomeandotherbasicrightsandinterestsofvulnerablegroups,theChinesegovernmenthasinrecentyearstakenmanyproactiv:--Inte,inlightofinadequatedomesticdemand,proactivefiscalmeasuresandprudentmonetarypolicies,diversetoolsweretakentoencouragethesmallandmedium-sizedenterprisesthatcouldcontributemoretoemploymentexpansion,whilefurtherreformmeasureswereintroducedtodevelopth,,anactivereemploymentprojectwaslaunchedtoensurethataconsiderablenumberoftheworkerslaidoffbythestate-ownedenterprisescouldfindjobsagainandthatmostofthemwereguaranteedabasicincomeandlife.--EmploymentshiftwasactivelypromotedtosolvetheprominentstructuralcontradictionofemploymentInlightofthestructuralcontradictionofemploymentbetweendifferentownerships,themostimportantpolicymeasu,theold-ageinsuranceandmedicalinsurancewereexpandedtothedomainofnon-publicownershipsoastoremovethefearsoftheworkersinth,anactiveexplorationwasmadeonhowtocompensatetheoldworkersfor"contributiondeduction"oyment,effortsweremadetoactivelydevelopnon-farmoccupationsandsmalltownssoa,thepermanentresidenc,thecentralgov,thegovernmentorganiz,theunemploymentinsurancesystemalsodevelopedfairlyfast.--,marketregulationmechanismwasestablishedandimprovedtominimizetheirrationalityintheareaofprimarydistr,personalincometaxandinteresttaxwereintroducedandtaxcollect,,andraisingthewagelevelsofthoseworkinginadministrativeo,,theminimumlivingguaranteesystemwaswidelyimplement,povertyreductioneffortswerealsointensified,andtheminimumlivinggu,someeffect,"twoguarantees"wereimplementedintheurbanareasandplayedanimportantroleinensuringthebasiclivingconditionsfortheworkerslaidoffbythestate-ownedenterprisesandalsofortheretiredpeople.--Activelyharmonizelabormanagementrelationsandstrengthentheprotectionofemployees’,Chinahaspromulgatedaser"LaborLawofthePeople’sRepublicofChina",the"RegulationsofthePeople’sRepublicofChinaConcerningtheHandlingofCorporateLaborDisputes",the"RegulationsontheProhibitionofUsingChildLabor",the"RegulationsonCollectiveContracts,theRegulationsonMinimumWages",the"DecisionoftheStateCouncilontheAmendmentoftheRegulationsoftheStateCouncilConcerningtheWorkingHoursofStaffandWorkers",andotherlawsandregulationsconcerningold-ageinsurance,medicalinsurance,industr,prehensivelypromotetherolesoftradeunionsinrepresentingandsafeguardingtherig,Chinaadoptedthe"TradeUnionLawofthePeople’sRepublic"in1992,andadoptedthe"ArticlesofAssociationoftheChineseTradeUnions"’sCongressadoptedthe"ResolutionontheAmendmentoftheTradeUnionLawofthePeople’sRepublicofChina",tradeunionshavebeenestablishedinmoreandmorenon-state-ownedenterprisesinadditiontostate-ownedones....Ifyouneedthefullcontext,pleaseleaveamessageonthewebsite.LiShantong,LuZhongyuan,HouYongzhi,LiuYongandFengJieAsacomplicatedandhugesystemengineeringundertaking,thesouth-to-northwaterdiversionprojectwillgenerateprofoundandlastingimpactonth,itisimperativetocorrectlyhandletherelationshipbetweenwatersavingandwaterdiversion,pollutioncontrolandwatersupply,environmentalprotectionandwaterutilization,pamongwatersupplyareas,waterreceivingareasandareasalongthewaterdiversionroutes,aswellastherela,effortsshouldbemadetostartwatersavingpriortowaterdiversion,andchangethesituationofext,industryandurbanconstruction,whichwillfatallyoffsettheeconomicandsocialef,,China’stotalwaterutilisationforagriculturalfieldirrigationhasreached344billionm3,%,theeffectiveutilisationrateofirrigationwaterisonly30-40%,whilethatofthedevelopedcountriesstandsat70-80%.InChina,grainproductioncapacitypercubicmeterofwaterisonlyaroundonekilogram,%oftheirrigatedareasinChina,thissystemleaksaway130billionm3ofwatereachyear,accountingformorethan70%,waterutilisationinin,theoutputofonetonofsteeluses23-56tonsofwater,whileintheUSA,JapanandGermany,,whileinthedevelopedcountries,,therateofre-utilisationofindustrialwaterisonly30-40%,whileitisover75%%,andinsomecities,itisashighasabove15%.Facedwiththeshortsupplyofwaterresource,thesituationofextensiveutilisation,thesouth-ges,soastoc’sextensiveutilisationandseriouswasteofwaterresourceincludetheoutdatedconceptionsaswellasthewaterre,itisnecessarytocompletethefollowingsixconceptionandinstitutionalchanges:(1)changetheconceptionthatregardswaterasinexhaustible,increasetheawarenessthatfreshwaterresourceislimited;(2)changethepracticeofonlypreventingthedamageofwatertohumanbeings,preventespeciallythedamageofhumanbeingstothewaterresourceaswell,soastoachieveharmoniousco-existenceofmanandnature;(3)changethepracticeoffocusingonwaterresourcedevelopment,utilisationandcontrol,strengthentheappropriateallocation,effectivesavingandreasonableutilisationofwaterresourceonthepremiseofprotectingandimprovingtheecologicalenvironment;(4)changethepracticeofwatersupplybasedondemand,increasewaterutilisationefficiencyandguaranteedwatersupply,makenationaleconomicdevelopmentplansandindustrialdistributionbasedonthedemandandsupplyconditionsofwaterresource;(5)changethepracticeof"givingequalprioritytoopeningupmorechannelsofsupplies,watersavingandpollutioncontrol"to"watersavingfirst,pollutioncontrolmust,andseekingmorewatersupplyfrommultiplechannels";and(6)changethewaterresourcemanagementdispersedinseveraldepartmentsundertheplannedeconomytoacentralizedmanagementthat"coversbothlandandwaterareas",,pollutionalongthebankoftheYangtseRiver–thewatersourceareaoftheeasternrouteofthesouth-to-northwaterdiversionproject–,largevolumeofuntreatedurbanwastewaterisdirectlydischargedintotheRiver,creatingatleastbanwasterwater,thewaterofthewatersourceareaalsoconcealspotentialproblemsofbio-pollutionbyspecificorganismsparticularlyfoundintheSouth,,relevantmeasuresshouldbeadoptedassoonaspossibletocontrolpollutionanddGanziregions,,theysufferfromserioussoilerosioncausedbydegeneratedgrasslands,desertificationandwildrats,whichnotonlyrunagainstwaterconservancyatthesource,butalsoseriouslythreatelutionandecologicaldamagesmalongthemiddleandeasternr,theprop%.In2001,eightministriesandgovernmentdepartments,includingtheStateEnvironmentalProtectionAdministrationandtheStateDevelopmentandPlanningCommission,carriedoutaninspection,whichdiscoveredthattherewasnofundamentalchangeinthestructuralpollutionalongtheHuaiRiver,anditwasespeciallydifficulttobring,52sewagedisposalplantsshouldbeconstructedintherivervalley,promotingco-ordinatedeconomicalongthewaterdiversionroutesAsahugecross-valleyandlong-distanceproject,thesouth-to-northwaterdiversionprojectmayinvolvestate-levelecologicalprotectionzonesoroftheseareas,,effortsshouldbemadetobringbenefitratherthanharmtotheareas,effectivelymaintaintheecologicalprotectionzonesandspeeduptheareasandtheconstructionofsmalltowns,resettlementanddevelopmentoftownshipandvillageenterprisesalongthe,themajorcausesofthedisasterincludedisrepairofthewaterconservancyprojectsandtheconstructionoftownshipandvillageenterpriseandprivatepremisesinsidetheflooddischargeandfloodstorageareas,,whileeffortsshouldbemadetoeffectivelyplanandprotecttheflooddischargeandstorageareas,relocatetheprivateandthetownshipandvillageenterprisepremisesfromtheareas,andincorporatetheeffortofconstructingsmalltownswiththatofacceleratingthedevelopmentof,effortsshouldbemadetoprotecttheimmediateinterestsofimmigrantsandensurethattheyarecontentwiththeirnewhousingandjobstopreventthemfromreturningtonativeplaces....Ifyouneedthefullcontext,pleaseleaveamessageonthewebsite.20108月通过ISO9001:2000国际质量管理。

    我公司以Amongthekeyindustries,,whichwas30%,23percentagepointshigherthantheprojected7%,326billionyuan,%,marilyduetotheimplementationofaseriesofstatemacropolicymeasures,whicheffectivelypushedupthegrowthofconsumption,,thereorganizationandrestructuringofthepetro,thesuccessfullistingofthetwogroupsoninternationalmarketsbroug,thehigherpricesofpetroleumandsomepetrochemicalproductsonthedomesticmarket,drivenupbyinternationaloilpricehikes,alsoplayedanimportantpart,theindustry’stotaloutputvaluewas30%,telecommunicationproductsandinvestmentproductsthrivedinbothproductionandsales,,thesalesofcellularphonesposted140%growth,%growth,andcolorTVscreens,electroniccomponentsandintegratedcircuitsalsogrewmorethan40%.Inadditiontothefast-growingdomesticdemand,thequickrecoveryinexcies,,42%,ygrew20%intheyear,%higherthanthatof1999,12percentagepointshigherthanthenationalaverage,,,,%,theoutputoftruckstotaled764,000,,000,%higherthan1999,,000,7%,heavy-dutytruckscontinuedtoleadthegrowth,risingby74%evelsof1999,%,light,%,%,bothcons,ironandsteelproductswere,theironandsteelproductionreboundedtosomee,asthemarketandpricesgraduallybecamestable,,theou,%,%%,thetotalsteeloutputwascontrolledwithi,%,,whiletheplate-piperatioroseto42%,,thoseinoversupply,suchassmall-sizedproductsandwirerods,,theproductsinshortsupplyondomesticmarket,suchaslargeandmedium-sizedproducts,%%respectively,0,pushedbyri,%,%,%.Amongthemainbuildingmaterials,cementtotaled580milliontons,%,whileplateglasstotaled180millionweight-crates,%.In2000,,%,,,,thetotaloutputvalueofthefiveprovincesandautonomousregionsofShaanxi,Gansu,Qinghai,%in2000,rket,increasingintensecompetitionandtherelevantstatepolicies,didmuchbetterintermsofrevenue,profit,,afastgrowthtrendappearedintheelec,350billionKWH,%,hydro,%,%%,ftheyear,onthebasisofmorethan10%,326billionKWH,%,especiallysomepower-consuminglargeandmedium-sizedstate-ownedenterprises,werethe%ofalltheelectricityconsumedandcontributed70%,thereductionandexemptionofpowerconsumptionsubsidies,theconsolidationofruralpowerprices,thereducedpricesoftheruralhouseholdpowerconsumptionandthesharpriseoffuelpricesallcontributedtothefastgrowthofthedemandinthepowermarket....Ifyouneedthefullcontext,pleaseleaveamessageonthewebsite.、鸿泰国际试玩注册送38用户至上大发下载 客户端LuWeiResearchReportNo160,2000Difficultiesinfund-raisingbysmallandmedium-sizedenterprises(“SMEs”):First,someoftheseenterprisesdonothavesufficientmortgages,,,mostofthebusinessesundertakenbytheseenterprisesareofacompetitivecharacter,inwhichbankruptcyratioandbigrisksinfund-raisingarecomparativelyhigh,,thegovernmentsofmanycountrieshaveformulatedcorrespondingpo,includingcreditguaranteewithgovernmentparticipation,mutualguaranteebetweenSMEsthemselves,,thegovernmentsofmanycountriesandregionshavetakentheestablishmentofacreditguaranteesystemforSMEswithgovernmentparticipationasanimportantpolicytosupportSMEs,tes,JapanandTaiwanProvinceofChinaTheUnitedStates,JapanandTaiwanhavea,however,tparticipation(1).Withgovevernmentallocations,orsuppliedbygovernments,financialinstitutions,,thefundsearmarkedforSmallBusinessCreditGuaranteeProgramintheUnitedStatesareprovideddirectlybythefed,thecapitalfundsofthecoffersofcreditinsurancefinancialcoffersofSMEs,localgovernments,,thedonationtionsfromthegovernment,banks,andfinancialinstitutions,withgovernmentdonationsaccountingfor80percentofthetotal.(2).Itisnotanecessitythatallguaranteeinstitutionsfun,thefundsoftheSmallBusinessCreditGuaranteePrograminitiatedbythefederalgovernmentoftheUnitedStatescomeexclusivelyfromappropriationsofthefederalgovernmentbutareexecutedandmanagedbytheSmallBusinessAdministration,,thefundscomefromtheirrespectivegovernments,butareactuallyoperatedbyassociations,fundsandotherspecializedorganizations,underthesupervisionofgovernmentadministrations.(3).Theguarante,intheUnitedStatesandTaiwanProvince,thesystemofone-tierguaranteeinstitutionswithlocalbrancheshasbeenintroduced,whileinJapan,thesystemofmulti-tierguaranteehasbeeninstalled:guaranteefromthecreditinsurancecoffersattcetolocalcreditguaranteeassociations,withthereinsuranceratiostandingat70-80percent.(4).TheformsoalappropriationstoreplenishthecreditguaranteefundsforSMEs,withcompensationsforgua,thefederalgovernmentoftheUnitedStatesmakesbudgetary,however,haveanirregularsourceoffundreplenishment,,therefore,compensationsforguaationAlltheprojectsofcreditguarantees,governmentguaranteeprogramsallcontainclear-cutrequirementonthesizesandcharactersoftheobjectsofguarantee,andalltheg,itisclarifiedthatemphasiswouldbeputonenterprisesthatcannotobtainloansorfundingthroughnormalchannelsoffund-raising,referringmainlytothosesmallenterprisest,allguaranteeprogramshaonofemployment,supporttoSMEsinexportandtechnicalupgrading,replenishmentofseasonalworkingcapital,fdevelopmentandadoptdifferentmanagementsystems,,theguaranteeprogramoftheUnitedStatesisdesignedtoprovideguaranteetosomespecialcommunities,includingenterprisesrunbywomen,thedisabled,demobilizedarmymenorminoritypeople,,istailoredtotheindustrialpoliciesofthegovernmentandbasedmainlyindustrialpolicies,,itemsofguaranteetoundertakingsofcreationbyyoungpeopleanddevelopmentofnamebrandsbyenterpriseshavebeenestablishedunderthecreditguaranteefundsinlinewiththegovernmentprogramforthedevelopmentofSMEs,focusingonsupporttosmallbusinessofanewundertakingcharacter....Ifyouneedthefullcontext,pleaseleaveamessageonthewebsite.LuZhongyuanResearchReportNo139,2002Abstract:Thisarticlefirstanalysedthestatisticindicators,includingthegrowthrateofdomesticnon-governmentinvestment,itsproportionintotalsocialinvestmentasbeenacceleratinganwthofnon-governmentinvestment,andeventuallyputforwardseveral:non-governmentinvestmentstatusproposalStatisticalanalysesdemonstratethatnon-governmentinvestmenthasbeenacceleratinginrecentlyyearsanditsproportreasing,,,thegrowthofnon-governme,ofinvestmentsmadebythestateeconomy,theforeign,HongKong,MacaoandTaiwaninvestorsandthetotalsociety;ofwhich,,Chinahassuccessivelyissuedtreasurybondsintheinvestmentsectortopullthegrowthofoveralldemandforinvestment,,totalsocialinvestmentincreasedby13%,,withmajorbeneficiarybeingthestateeconomy,treasurybondsinvestm,peoplehavebeenw,however,itwasonlyin1998thatthegrowthofinvestmentmadebythestateeconomywash,therespectiveratesofgrowthofinvestmentsmadebythecollective,privateandothereconomieswereallhigherthanthatofthestateeconomyingeneral;ofwhich,thegrowthofinvestmentmadeby"othereconomies"wasover28%fortwoconsecutiveyears(seeTable1).Amongvarioustypesofeconomies,,,%,investmentmadebytheforeign,HongKong,,%.Theaveragegrowthrateofdomesticnon-governmentinvestmentisnotonlyhigherthanthatofthestateeconomy,,th%,%,%%;%,%,%%perannum,tofthestateinvestment,theproportionofinvestmentmadebyjointstockeconomyisgrowingremarkably,theproportionbyinvestmentbyforeign,HongKong,MacaoandTaiwaninvestorsisdropping,whilethedependencylevelofthewholesocialinvestmentongovernmentdirectinvestmentisdecreasingInthepastfewyears,theproportionofdomesticnon-governmentinvestmentinthetotalinvestmentofthewholesocietycontinuouslydemonstratedagrowingtrend,whiletheproportionsofinvestmentmadebythestateeconomyandtheforeign,HongKong,,theproportionsofstateinvestment,domesticnon-governmentinvestmentandforeign,HongKong,%,%%%,%%,theproportionofdomesticnon-government,,,theproportionofinvestmentofthecollectiveeconomyfellslowlyby2percentagepoints,andtheproportionofinvestmentofforeign,HongKong,,theproportionofinvestmentofprivateeconomy,especiallythatofthejointstockeconomy,,,theproportionofstateinvestmentinthewholesocietygrewmarginallyin1998and1999,,%%.Meanwhile,amongchangesintheproportionsofnon-governmentinvestment,%%,%%,andthatofothereconomiesgrewfrom18%%,ofwhich,%%(seeTable2).Thisindicatedthatwhiletreasurybondsinvestmentconcentratedinthestatesector,domesticnon-governmentinvestmentwasgettingmoreandmoreactive,andtheinvestmentofthejointstockeconomywasespeciallyvigorousandsawthefastestofgrowth.,sagriculture,thisreportadoptstheChinaAgriculturalandTradePolicySimulationModelwhichisbasedonourresearchgroupsimprovementontheCountryProjectionsandPolicyAnalysisSimulationModel(CPPA)(hereinafterreferredtoasCATP).CATP,asectorbalancemodel,ismainlyappliedtoassessingimpactoftradepolicyreformontheproduction,,functioningtheory,:(1).China,,itsurbanizationlevelwillberaisedby1%annuallyin2000-2030,withthelevelreaching60%;(2).%in2000-2005and7%in2005-2015;(3).::1in2005-2015;(4).Itsannualrealgrowthrateofsci-techinputintoagricultureisexpectedtobeat5%;(5)Itsannualrealgrowthra%;and(6)%..eralizationofdomesticagricultureproducemarketonthefutureofChinasmilkindustry,wehavedesignedthreevariationsofformulas,namely:BaselineFormula,’smilkindustryunderthestatusquopolicy,theWTOIFormulaintendstoprojecttheeffectundercurrenttermsreachedduringChina’,however,goesastepfurthertodrawapictureintheeventofChina’spossiblecommitmenttofull-scaletradeliberalizationina’saccessiontoWTOandtheloomingagriculturalinternationalizationwkproducts,along-rangeprospect,however,,%%,thoughtheadverseeffectoftradeliberalizationwillstillbefeltthereafterinoutputvalue,%%by2010undert%%smore,%asmilkproducts,cuttingdownthenetincomeoftheformer,,theWTOIandWTOIIformulaswoulddrivedowntheproducers’%%respectively,%%,%%,thisworseningtendencywouldbeputunder%,declineinproducers’priceswouldbringadvantagestoconsumerstothetuneof732millionyuan,%increaseofoverallconsumptionby2005,%%%%%,%%,%%,%%’,,thecorrespondingfiguresofthethreevariationsofformulaswouldbe931kilotons,,,,%%overtheBaselineFormulaby2005,%%%%,,%%overtheBaselineFormulaby2005,%%%%,,accessiontoWTOwillpushChinasmilkindustryforwardtoparticipatingineconomicglobalization,ngaspects:Firstly,comparedwiththedevelopedcountries,China’smilkindustryisstillintheinitialstagesofarasthetechnologicallevelofproductionandprocessingisconcerned,,importsofmilkproductsmayrisefromcountriesandregionswithlowerproductioncosts,thusbringingpressureonChina,directshockwavesfromimportsofliquidmilkwouldbemodest,however,,theincreasinglyevidenttendencyofglobalizationwouldbringaboutenormousexpansionopportunitiestoChina’illdriveupcostinthedevelopedcountri’smilkindustrybyattractingforeigncapital,’smilkindustrytoimproveproductiontechnology,equipment,,reorganizationandrestructuringofthesectorwillspeedup,bigenterprisegroupandnamebrandswillemergeandinterna,moreintensemarketcompetitionwouldpropeltransformationofmechanismandspeedup’smilkindustryinafundamentalmanner.(Excerptsfromresearchreport"ImplementationofWTOAgreement:AssessingEconomicImpactonChina’sMilkIndustry,"byChenGuoqiangetal.,theResearchDepartmentofRuralEconomy.)、DVORGuoLihongEconomicrestructuringtakesplaceconstantly,independentofpeople’sawareness,ngthemselvesinarelativewaywhencomparedwithothercountries,andthemostevirestructuring,anditcanachieveeitherafavorableoranunfavorableresult,,namely,thelarge-scaletransnationalflowofproductionfactors,large-scaletransnationalinvestmentofindustrialcapital,,anditincludesboththeemergenceofsunriseindustriesandenterprises,andthageisinnatureaprocessofstrengtheningtheeconomybothquantitativelyandqualitatively,,EuropeisonaparwiththeUS,,therearerelativelybigdifferencesamongEurope,,,,spontaneousevolutionprocess,nomenaandmarketdevelopment,,itisanorganiccombinationofaseriesofsocialandmarketfactors(education,culture,capital,technology,humantalents,industrialorganizationsandbusinessenvironment),butit’,thegovernmentsofvariouscountriesarelearningfromtheUSexperienceandhavestrengthenedsystembuildup,encoura,governmentalcapitalhas,theFrenchJospinGovernmentcreatedaventureinvestmentfundbytransferringreturingofemergingindustrializedcountriesandregions(representedbytheFourLittleAsianDragons).rrecttheirmistakes,andit’g-timeaccumulationofindustrialandcommercialcapitalofac,anyfailureinfence-mendingwillmakeitimposs,thecommonfocusofthestructuraladjustmentoftheFourLittleDragons(andinaweakersenseotherASEANcountries),itisashort-termmeasuretakenforthesakeofeconomicsecurity,whichisaime,Malaysiare-openeditsforeigncurrencyexchangemarket,andHongKonghandedbacktoinvestorsthe“officialstocks”,fence-mending,SouthKoreaincludedsomespecialmeasuresrelatedtoenterpriserestructuringinitsstructuraladjustmentprograms,suchasencouragingthedevelopmentofsmalla:(1)topromotethebirthandgrowthofhi-techenterprisesthroughintegratedpolicies;(2)toopenwidertothe,SouthKoreaiswillingtotakepoliticalrisks(duetodifferentsocialandculturalbackground)."shocktherapy"havecometorealizethatanyeconomicrestructuringrandomlydrivenbythemarketforceintheabsenceofbasiclawsandeffectivemechanismsonlyresultedin"shocks"withoutany"therapies".Thisisthe“post-Washingtonconsensus”.FormostformerSovietrepublicsandeasternEuropeancountriesintransformation,itseemsnottobetherighttimenowtotalkaboutanyactive,...Ifyouneedthefullcontext,pleaseleaveamessageonthewebsite.LongGuoqiangResearchReportNo66,2000China’,asenseofanxietyappeareddomestically:anexceedinglyhightradedependenceratiomighthaveanadverseeffectonthehealthydevelopmentofChina’’sforthcomingentrytotheWorldTradeOrganization,whetherwemaintainacorrectunderstandingoftradedependenceratiowilldirectlyaffectourasses’stradedependenceratiobyscientificmethodsandarrivingatacorrectun’stradedependenceratioTradedependenceratioofacountryistheratioofthetotalamountofforeigntradeofthatcountrytoitsgrossdomesticproduct(GDP).Theratioisusedtomeasurethedegreeofdependenceofacountry’,tradedependenceratiocanbedividedintotwocategories:degreeofdependenceuponexport,;anddegreeofdependenceuponimport,,itlay,,ideworldinthepast20years,China’,from1981through1999,theaverageannualgrowthrateofChina’,,intheyearsbefore1994theRenminbi(RMB),China’(seeChart1)Therapiddevelopmentoftheproce“tradeofprocessingimportedmaterialsprovided”and“tradeofprocessingmaterialsprovidedbyforeignclients”.Inthe18yearsfrom1981through1999,theaverageannualgrowthratesofChina’,,,theaveragean,makingtheratioo’,bothdomesticcontentratioandrateofaddedvalueofprocessingtradehavegoneup,auniquefeatureofthetraderemainstoacertainextent“importandhighexport”.,makinguseoftradedependenceratiowhichincludestheprocessingtrademaytoalargeextentexaggeratethedegreeofdependenceofChina’’stradedependenceratio(1978-1999)Source:’stradedependenceratiocommunityTheoretically,thereisnogenerallyaccep,toacquireacorrectunderstandingofChina’stradedependenceratio,wemustcarryoutanalysiswithChinaplacedinthecontextoftheinternationalcommunityandbycomparingChinaw,thecontinuedriseofChina’,,theaveragerateofwo,thetradedependenceratiooftheeconomiesoftheworld’saveragedegreeofdependenceuponexportrosefrom14percentin1970to25percentin1997(seeChart2).Fromahorizontalpointofview,thehigherthepercapitaincomeofacountry,thehigherthetradedependenceratioofthatcountry(seeTable1).ThisisanotherpieceofevidencedemonstratingthattheriseofChina’stradedependencer,atpresentChina’,China’sforeignexchangeratedevaluedbyabigmarginwhichinturncausedChina’,China’stradedependenceratiohasbeenconsistentlylowerthantheworldaverage(seeChart2).Third,whencarryingoutcomparisonsbetweenChina’stradedependenceratioandthatoftheinternationalcommunity,weshouldtakein,ifotherfactorsarethesame,,thegreaterthetertiaryindustrycomponentinaGDP,...Ifyouneedthefullcontext,pleaseleaveamessageonthewebsite.LiuShouyingInChina’sdevelopmentduringthepast50years,anumberofsignificantpolicyerrorshavatedlandwasabouttobeexhausted,Chinahadnootherchoicebuttoenforcecompulsorypoliciestocontresourcesthroughsuchcompulsorycontrolmeasures,Chinaissearchi,torestrainpeople’,greatcaremustbetakenwhenanalyzingtheimpactonpopulationgrowthresultingfromarrangementsmadeinthelandsystembecauselandsystemhasauniquecharacterandChina’’scollectivelandownershipsystem:AnendogenousmechanismstimulatingpopulationgrowthChina’straditionalcollectivelandownershipsystemkindividualpeasantfamiliesasbasicunitsandwhichh,whousedtohaveindependentproductionandmanagementdecisionrights,“membersofcollectives”,,thegainsofpeasantsaslaborersand,afamilycange,thecostofanewfamilymemberwasnotentirelybornebythefamily,everylaborercapableofbearingoffspringwouldontheonehandrelyonhisorherageadvantagetoworkforworkpoints;andontheotherhandalsotogivebirthtomorechildren,,suchawelfaredistrirameworkofthelandownershipinthecollectivizationera,itcollageshouldbeinpossesindingwaystodeterminehowmuchrossiblechangesthatmightappearinthecommunity’spres;“grainrationland”amongthepopulationanddistributethe“responsibilityland”amongthelaborers;threearrangementsoftheredistributionoflandrightsandbenefitsmentio,inactualityunderthethreeright-and-benefitarrangementsmentiualamountoflandrightsandbenefitonlywithregardtothe“grainrationland.”Whenitcomestothe“responsibilityland”onlythoseofve-meestsinthecourseofreform,wecitedatageneratedbytrcapitanetincomesorwithbetterlandendowmentpreferlessegalitarianarrangements;andthosewithlowerpercapita,%ofthevillagesinZhejiangProvincechosethethirdarrangement,,%%ofvillagesinZhejiangandJilinrespecti,differencesappearedwhenquestionedwhether,atthetimeoffixingfarmoutputquotasonthehouseholdbasis,considerationwasgiventoadjuafterfamilysizeschanged(10%and8%respectively).Mostofthevillageschosenottoundergoredistribution(40%and44%respectively).Inshar%ofvillagesresp:0%%respectively....Ifyouneedthefullcontext,pleaseleaveamessageonthewebsite.。

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